American Literature for Millennial and Centennial Undergraduates: Reflections upon an Eclectic Teaching Model / La literatura norteamericana para universitarios millennials y centennials: : Reflexiones en torno a un modelo ecléctico de enseñanza

Palabras clave: Literatura norteamericana; canon; enseñanza; diversidad cultural.

Resumen

La cuestión del canon en aula de literatura norteamericana de la universidad española ha estado, con toda lógica, influida por las denominadas ‘Guerras Culturales’ que desde los años noventa del siglo pasado se han librado en Estados Unidos entre los partidarios de mantener una tradición próxima al pensamiento dominante y los que han intercedido por la apertura de esa tradición a voces obliteradas. Partiendo de la definición de lo literario frente a lo no literario, este trabajo se adentra en las distintas corrientes que han determinado el canon literario de ese país y las que lo han rechazado por dejar sin voz a determinados grupos (mujeres, inmigrantes, clase trabajadora, o minorías étnicas, raciales o de orientación sexual). Ante los desafíos que representan una nueva generación de alumnos universitarios españoles, los denominados millennials y centennials, mucho más receptivos a las creaciones del ‘Otro’ -independientemente de si esas creaciones son distintivas, por su origen o por su carácter formal, de lo entendido como literario,- reflexionamos sobre la necesidad de abogar por una aproximación docente de corte ecléctica a la creación artísticas estadounidense, conjugando el requisito de conocer las obras canónicas con estudiar también en nuestras aulas aquellas que la tradición ha denostado.

 

Abstract

The question of the canon in American Literature classroom of Spanish universities is influenced by the ‘Cultural Wars’ that, since the 1990s, have been fought in the United States between the supporters of maintaining a tradition close to the dominant thought, and those that have defended the opening of the canon to obliterated voices. Starting from the definition of literary versus non-literary, this work delves into the tendencies that have determined the literary canon of the US, and those which have rejected it for its concealment of the voices of important segments of the American population (women, immigrants, and class, ethnic, racial or sexual-oriented groups). Acknowledging that today’s teachers face the challenges posed by a new generation of university students, the so-called Millennials and Centennials, who are much more receptive to the creations of the ‘Other’ -regardless of whether these creations are distinctive, by their origin or by their formal character, of what is understood as literary,- we ponder upon the need to advocate an eclectic teaching approach to American artistic creations, combining the requirement to know the canonical works with the study of those pieces of work that the tradition has reviled.

Keywords: American Literature; Canon; Teaching; Cultural Diversity.

Citas

Agathocleous, T., y Dean, A. D. (Eds.). (2003). Teaching Literature. A Companion. Nueva York: Palgrave.

Alberti, J. (Ed.). (1995). The Canon in the Classroom. The Pedagogical Implications of Canon Review in American Literature. Nueva York: Garland Publishers.

Beach, R.; D. Appleman; S. Hynds y J. Wilhelm. (2011). Teaching Literature to Adolescents. Nueva York: Routledge.

Bloom, H. (1994). The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages. Nueva York: Harcourt Brace & Co.

Bona, M. J., e I. Maini (2006). Introduction: Multiethnic Literature in the Millennium. En M. J. Bona y I. Maini (Eds.), Multiethnic Literature and Canon Debates (pp. 1-22). Nueva York: SUNY Press.

Carrió-Pastor, M. L. (Ed.). (2019). Teaching Language and Teaching Literature in Virtual Environments. Singapur: Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1358-5

Cerrillo, P. C., y Sánchez Ortiz, C. (2019). Clásicos e hitos literarios. Su contribución a la educación literaria. Tejuelo 29, 11-30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17398/1988-8430.29.11

Centennials: características principales de la nueva generación. Portal Uni>ersia (2019, 4 febrero). Obtenido 16 febrero 2019, desde http://noticias.universia.es/cultura/noticia/2017/03/28/1150982/centennials-caracteristicas-principales-nueva-generacion.html

Chambers, E., y Gregory, M.. (2006). Teaching & Learning English Literature. Londres: SAGE Publications.

Clark, S. (1994). Discipline and Resistance: The Subjects of Writing and the Discourses of Instruction. En K. Myrsiades y L. S. Myrsiades (Eds.). Margins in the Classroom: Teaching Literature (pp. 121-136). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Cunliffe, M. (1987). The Literature of the United States. Londres: Penguin.

Cutter, M. J. (1995). If It’s Monday This Must Be Melville. A ‘Canon, Anticanon’ Approach to Redefining the American Literature Survey. En J. Alberti (Ed.), The Canon in the Classroom. The Pedagogical Implications of Canon Review in American Literature (pp. 119-151). Nueva York: Garland Publishers.

Crews, F. (1992). The Critics Bear It Away: American Fiction and the Academy. Nueva York: Randon House.

Dauber, K. (1977). Criticism of American Literature. Diacritics, 7, 55-66.

Elliott, E. (2010). The Emergence of the Literatures of the United States. En P. Lauter (Ed.), A Companion to American Literature and Culture (pp. 9-25). Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.

Foley, B. (1994). Subversion and Oppositionality in the Academia. En K. Myrsiades y L. S. Myrsiades (Eds.), Margins in the Classroom: Teaching Literature (pp. 137-152). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Giroux, H. A. (1994). Rethinking the Boundaries of Educational Discourse: Modernism, Postmodernism and Feminism. En K. Myrsiades y L. S. Myrsiades (Eds.), Margins in the Classroom: Teaching Literature (pp. 1-51). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Gates Jr., H. L. (1992). Loose Canons. Notes on the Culture Wars. Oxford: O.U.P.

Henry, N. (2003). Teaching the Victorians Today. En Agathocleous y Dean (Eds.), Teaching Literature. A Companion (pp. 49-57). Nueva York: Palgrave.

Ibarra-Rius, N. y J. Ballester-Roca. (2019). Digital Storytelling in Teacher Training: Development of Basic Competences, Creativity and Multimodal Literacy Through Book Trailers. En M. L. Carrió-Pastor (Ed.). Teaching Language and Teaching Literature in Virtual Environments (pp. 241-254). Singapur: Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1358-5

Jakobson, R. (1960). Closing statements: Linguistics and Poetics. En T. A. Sebeok (Ed.). Style in Language (pp. 350-377). Cambridge, MA: The Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Kent-Drury, R. M. (2005). Using Internet Primary Sources to Teach Critical Thinking Skills in World Literature. Westport: Libraries Unlimited.

Krupat, A. (1989). The Voice in the Margin: Native American Literature and the Canon. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Lauter, P. (Ed). (2010). A Companion to American Literature and Culture. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.

---. (1991). Canons and Contexts. Oxford: O.U.P.

---. (2010). Introduction. En P. Lauter (Ed.). A Companion to American Literature and Culture (pp. 1-5). Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.

---. (1984). Reconstructing American Literature: A Synopsis of an Educational Project of the Feminist Press. MELUS, 11(1), 33-43.

Lee, J. H. X. y M. Thi Pham. (2013). Pedagogy for Healing and Justice through Cambodian American Literature. En M. A. Raja, H. Stringer y Z. Van de Zande (Eds.). Critical pedagogy and global literature: worldly teaching (pp. 97-111). Nueva York: Palgrave.

Manuel, C. (Ed.). (2001). Teaching American Literature in Spanish Universities. Biblioteca Javier Coy. Valencia: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Valencia.

Marías, C.; E. Alcalde Peñalver y A. Portela Lopa. (2019). Teaching Poetry Through Songs in a Virtual Environment: From Students’ Reluctance to Their Acquiescence. En M. L. Carrió-Pastor (Ed.). Teaching Language and Teaching Literature in Virtual Environments (pp. 255-275). Singapur: Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1358-5

Matthiessen, F. O. (1941). American Renaissance. Art and Expression in the Age of Emerson and Whitman. Oxford: O.U.P.

Morales Ruiz, J. y I. Tavera Pérez. (2017). Millennials, centennials, tecnología y educación superior: El modelo LEKTURE. Educación Superior, Innovación e Internacionalización, pp. 1-5. Obtenido 15 enero 2019, desde http://reposital.cuaed.unam.mx:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/5015

Myrsiades, K. y L. S. Myrsiades. (Eds.). (1994). Margins in the Classroom: Teaching Literature. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Owen Jr., D. P. (2011). The Need for Revision Curriculum, Literature, and the 21st Century. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2011.

Raja, M. A.; H. Stringer y Z. Van de Zande. (Eds). (2013). Critical Pedagogy and Global Literature: Worldly Teaching. Nueva York: Palgrave.

Reising, R. J. (1986). The Unusable Past Theory and the Study of American Literature. Nueva York: Methuen.

Renker, E. (2010). Academicizing ‘American Literature’. En P. Lauter (Ed.). A Companion to American Literature and Culture (pp. 57-71). Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.

Rogers, T. (1997). No Imagined Peaceful Place A Story of Community, Texts, and Cultural Conversations in One Urban High School English Classroom. En T. Rogers (Ed.). Reading Across Cultures: Teaching Literature in a Diverse Society (pp. 95-115). Nueva York: Teachers College Press.

Schudson, M. (1994). The New Validation of Popular Culture: Sense and Sentimentality in Academia. En J. Storey (Ed.). Cultural Theory and Popular Culture. A Reader (pp. 486-494). Nueva York: Harvester-Wheatsheaf.

Stavney, Anne. (1995). Conversing Texts. The Disinvention of American Modernism. En J. Alberti (Ed.). The Canon in the Classroom. The Pedagogical Implications of Canon Review in American Literature (pp. 153-164). Nueva York: Garland Publishers.

Streeby, Shelley. (2010). Multiculturalism and Forging New Canons”. En P. Lauter (Ed.). A Companion to American Literature and Culture (pp. 110-1215). Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.

Spiller, R.; W. Thorp; T. H. Johnson; H. S. Canby; H. M. Jones; D. Wecter y S. T. Williams. (Eds.). (1948). Literary History of the United States. Nueva York: The Macmillan Company.

Sullivan, M. M. (2013). Cycles of Opportunity: On the Value and Efficacy of Native American Literature in Teaching World Literature to Millennials. En M. A. Raja, H. Stringer y Z. Van de Zande (Eds.). Critical pedagogy and global literature: worldly teaching (pp. 201-211). Nueva York: Palgrave.

Vandersee, C. (1994). American Parapedagogy for 2000 and Beyond: Intertextual, International, Industrial Strength. American Literary History, 6 (3), 409-433.

Wellek, R. y A. Warren. (1956). Theory of Literature. Harmondsworth: Peregrine Books.

Williams, C. (2003). Teaching Autobiography. En T. Agathocleous y A. C. Dean (Eds.). Teaching Literature. A Companion (pp. 11-30). Nueva York: Palgrave.
Publicado
2019-12-09